Microorganisms have been invaluable in finding solutions for several problems encountered by mankind in maintaining the quality of the environment.
They have, for example, been used to positive effect in human and animal health, genetic engineering, environmental protection, and municipal and industrial waste treatment.
Microorganisms have enabled feasible and cost-effective responses which have been impossible via chemical or physical engineering methods so, microbial technologies have successfully been applied to a wide range of environmental problems, especially waste management issues.
These microorganisms or their products are integrated into the substrates that yield desired industrial products such as bioleaching (bio mining), bio detergent, bio treatment of pulp, bio treatment of wastes (bioremediation), bio filtrations, aquaculture treatments, bio treatment of textiles,biocatalysts, biomass fuel production, bio monitoring, and so on.
Microorganisms are vital for humans and for the environment, as they participate in the carbon and nitrogen cycles, as well as in fulfilling other vital roles like recycling other organisms, decomposition of dead remains and waste products. Microorganisms also have an important place in most higher-order multicellular organisms as symbioses.